The city was founded in 825 BC by Abd ar-Rahman II, who was then the Emir of Cordoba.
Muslims planners, taking advantage of the course of the river Segura, created a complex network of irrigation channels that made the town's agricultural existence prosperous.
After the fall of the Caliphate of Cordoba in 1.031, Murcia passed under the successive ruling of different powers seated in Almeria, Toledo and Seville. After the fall of Almoravide Empire, Muhammad Ibn Mardanis turned Murcia into the capital of an independent kingdom. At this moment, Murcia was a very prosperous city, famous for its ceramics, exported to Italian towns, as well as for silk and paper industries, the first in Europe. The coinage of Murcia was considered as model in the entire continent.
In 1.172 Murcia was taken by the Almohades, and from 1.223 to 1.243 it once again briefly served as the capital of an independent kingdom. By the treaty of Alcaraz, in 1.243, Alfonso X of Castile made Murcia a protectorate, getting access to Mediterrannean Sea while Murcia was protected against Granada and Aragon. But the town became rapidly colonized by Christians arriving from almost all over the Iberian Peninsula. These Christian populations were brought to the area with the goal of establishing a Christian base, one that would be loyal to the Crown of Castile and whose culture would replace that of the subjugated Muslim peoples. During the process of Christianization, many of the city’s mosques were destroyed or converted into Catholic churches. That is why a revolt spread in 1.264/1.266. In 1.296, James II of Aragon conquered the city. In 1.304, it was finally incorporated into Castile under the Treaty of Torrellas.
Murcia lost then its prosperity but flourished again in the 18th century, benefiting greatly from a boom in the silk industry. Many of the modern city's landmark churches and monuments date from this period of nascent mercantilism.
Murcia has been the capital of the province of Murcia since 1.838 and, with its creation by the central government in 1.982, capital of the autonomous community. Since then, it has become the seventh most populated municipality in Spain, and a thriving services city.